The Different Types of Forests in Pakistan

List of Different Types of Forests in Pakistan

In this blog, we will take a closer look at eight different types of forests found in Pakistan. It includes littoral and swamp forests, tropical dry deciduous forests, tropical thorn forests, subtropical forests, subtropical pine forests, Himalayan moist temperate forests, Himalayan dry temperate forests, and alpine forests.

Littoral and Swamp Forests

These large forests are typically found near the Arabian Sea beaches in Pakistan. Exotic species, such as the Avicenna marina (grey mangrove or white mangrove) and Rhizophora, can be found in these mangrove forests.

According to the latest estimates from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), Pakistan has roughly 207,000 hectares of swamplands.

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests

Tropical dry forests are characterised by deciduous trees that shed their leaves yearly and grow to a moderate height. These forests appear dense during the monsoon season. They are not distinguishable from other types of forests when viewed from an aerial perspective. 

Florists composition is what tropical dry deciduous forests usually have in common with other forests in Pakistan. Trees and plants commonly found in these woodlands include Manner, Bombay Cara, Trulia, plum trees, Mallows, and Acacia. The region’s typical shrub vegetation includes Akhmatova, Gymnosperm, and Indigofera.

Tropical Thorn Forests

Tropical thorn forests, also known as thorny forests, are characterized by dense, scrub-like flora. They are a type of dry forest. They are typically found in locations that are subject to warm temperatures and little rainfall. 

These forests have three basic characteristics: they are found in areas where rainfall is less than 70 cm; they include thorny shrubs with long roots that help them stay hydrated by reaching underground water sources; and they include trees and plants with thick, tiny leaves that reduce evaporation.

In Pakistan, tropical thorn forests are classified by climax vegetation and can be found around the Indus basin plains and in the districts of Sialkot, Gujrat, and Jehlum.

Subtropical Broadleaf Evergreen Forests

Subtropical broadleaf evergreen forests are xerophytic woods with thorny, small-leafed, and evergreen plant species, such as succulents. Olive trees, Acacia modesta, and Dodonaea trees are common here. 

These forests are most commonly found in Pakistan around the Himalayan foothills and lower slopes, particularly near the Salt Range, Kala Chitta, and the Murree Hills.

Subtropical Pine Forests

Subtropical pine forests are typically found in areas with a warm temperate climate and moderate to high rainfall. These forests are characterised by pine trees, as well as other conifers and deciduous trees.

Subtropical pine forests are found at the lower elevations of the Himalayan mountains in Pakistan and are an important source of timber and resin.

Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest

The Himalayan moist temperate forests are found at elevations between 1,200 and 3,000 metres in Pakistan. These forests are characterised by high rainfall, moderate to high humidity, and a wide variety of tree species, including oak, rhododendron, and deodar cedar. These forests are home to a wide variety of wildlife.

They also play an important role in the local economy, providing valuable resources such as timber, non-timber forest products, and ecotourism opportunities.

Himalayan Dry Temperate Forest

The Himalayan dry temperate forests are found at elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 metres in Pakistan. The weather there is generally dry and cool, with little rainfall and high evaporation rates. 

The tree species found in these forests have adapted to these conditions, and have small leaves and thick barks to reduce water loss. These forests are home to a diverse array of wildlife and also contribute to the local economy through timber production and ecotourism.

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